Numbers
1-4 Assignment to Take a Census 5-11 Reuben counted 12-14 Simeon Counted 15-18 Gad Counted 19-22 Judah Counted 23-25 Issachar Counted 26-27 Zebulun Counted 28-34 Manasseh Counted 35-37 Ephraim Counted 38-41 Benjamin Counted 42-43 Dan Counted 44-47 Asher Counted 48-50 Naphtali Counted 51 All Counted Israelites 52-56 The Size of the Inheritance 57-62 Levi Counted 63-65 Reminder of the First Census
Assignment to Take a Census

1Then it came about after the plague, that the LORD spoke to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, saying, 2“Take a census of all the congregation of the sons of Israel from twenty years old and upward, by their fathers’ households, whoever is able to go out to war in Israel.” 3So Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho, saying, 4“[Take a census of the people] from twenty years old and upward, as the LORD has commanded Moses.” Now the sons of Israel who came out of the land of Egypt [were]:

Moses counts the people by command of the LORD. It is as it is in Numbers 1. It is a sin to count the people without explicit command of God. In this sin David is caught (1Chr 21:1-71Then Satan stood up against Israel and moved David to number Israel.2So David said to Joab and to the princes of the people, “Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan, and bring me [word] that I may know their number.”3Joab said, “May the LORD add to His people a hundred times as many as they are! But, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? Why does my lord seek this thing? Why should he be a cause of guilt to Israel?”4Nevertheless, the king’s word prevailed against Joab. Therefore, Joab departed and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem.5Joab gave the number of the census of [all] the people to David. And all Israel were 1,100,000 men who drew the sword; and Judah [was] 470,000 men who drew the sword.6But he did not number Levi and Benjamin among them, for the king’s command was abhorrent to Joab.7God was displeased with this thing, so He struck Israel.). He wants to know the power of his people, as if God is not his power.

The command to count is given “after the plague”. The plague of the previous chapter is the last great plague that struck the people as ‘wilderness people’. The wilderness journey is over. They are about to enter the land. The unfaithfulness of the previous chapter has shown that all wilderness experiences have not changed the heart of man. Nor has God’s righteousness changed, as He has shown through the plague.

Yet He has not destroyed all of them, but in grace has kept them alive. They can be counted. But a new generation is counted. At the same time, however, the new generation is linked to the generation that “came out of the land of Egypt”. Other persons make up the people, but they remain the same people.

The expression “after the plague” marks a turning point in the history of the book of Numbers. A new generation is counted. The great question that arises from this is: Will this new people serve God more faithfully than the people who died in the wilderness?

At the beginning of the journey the people are counted (Num 1:1-51Then the LORD spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first of the second month, in the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, saying,2“Take a census of all the congregation of the sons of Israel, by their families, by their fathers’ households, according to the number of names, every male, head by head3from twenty years old and upward, whoever [is able to] go out to war in Israel, you and Aaron shall number them by their armies.4With you, moreover, there shall be a man of each tribe, each one head of his father’s household.5These then are the names of the men who shall stand with you: of Reuben, Elizur the son of Shedeur;). It is a great encouragement to know that, before we begin our ‘wilderness journey’, God counted us head by head. God knows every member of His people by name. In the wilderness each member has his own exercises, but each member may know that God will take care during the whole journey. The census here is the census at the end of the journey. None of those counted in Numbers 1 is alive here, except Caleb and Joshua (verse 6565For the LORD had said of them, “They shall surely die in the wilderness.” And not a man was left of them, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.). This means that a totally different people are counted than in Numbers 1.

They are numbered because the land will be given to them (verse 5353“Among these the land shall be divided for an inheritance according to the number of names.). The big difference between the two census is that the census of Numbers 1 is done in view of the upcoming wilderness journey, while the census here is done in view of the upcoming entry into the promised land to take possession of the heritage. Because there will be a battle to take possession of the inheritance, again “whoever is able to go out to war in Israel” is counted.

In both cases, the census is a great encouragement. During the census, he or she personally stands before God. This gives each member the impression that God has personal attention for him. This awareness gives strength to the task ahead, both for the wilderness and for the land.

The census does not only take place of all those who is bale to go out to war, but also “by their fathers’ households”, the latter even being the most important one because this is mentioned first. In the wilderness, battle is necessary to survive. In the land, battle is needed to conquer the inheritance. Once that inheritance has been taken, God’s intention is that every family should enjoy the inheritance. The blessings of the land are particularly enjoyed as a family of God, that is, together with our brothers and sisters, on occasions that are given for it. God’s family consists of babies, young men and fathers (1Jn 2:12-1812I am writing to you, little children, because your sins have been forgiven you for His name’s sake.13I am writing to you, fathers, because you know Him who has been from the beginning. I am writing to you, young men, because you have overcome the evil one. I have written to you, children, because you know the Father.14I have written to you, fathers, because you know Him who has been from the beginning. I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God abides in you, and you have overcome the evil one.15Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.16For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world.17The world is passing away, and [also] its lusts; but the one who does the will of God lives forever.18Children, it is the last hour; and just as you heard that antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have appeared; from this we know that it is the last hour.).

We can enjoy it when we do personal Bible study, we can also enjoy it as elderly or young people among each other. But according to God’s intention, the most is enjoyed when the whole family comes together. The fact that the emphasis in the census is more on the families than on the militant men is also evident, for example, from verse 3333Now Zelophehad the son of Hepher had no sons, but only daughters; and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah and Tirzah., which also mentions women.

A comparison between the counts of Numbers 1 and 26 shows the following far-away difference:

Tribe              Num 1            Num 26         +/-
Reuben          46,500             43,730             -2,270
Simeon          59,300             22,200             -37,100
Gad                45,650             40,500             -5,150
Judah             74,600             76,500             +1,900
Issachar         54,400             64,300             +9,900
Zebulun        57,400             60,500             +3,100
Ephraim        40,500             32,500             -8,000
Manasseh      32,200             52,700             + 20,500
Benjamin       35,400             45,600             +10,200
Dan                62,700             64,400             +1,700
Asher             41,500             53,400             +11,900
Naphtali        53,400             45,400             -8,000
Total              603,550           601,730           -1,820
Levi                22,100             23,000             +900


Reuben counted

5Reuben, Israel’s firstborn, the sons of Reuben: [of] Hanoch, the family of the Hanochites; of Pallu, the family of the Palluites; 6of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; of Carmi, the family of the Carmites. 7These are the families of the Reubenites, and those who were numbered of them were 43,730. 8The son of Pallu: Eliab. 9The sons of Eliab: Nemuel and Dathan and Abiram. These are the Dathan and Abiram who were called by the congregation, who contended against Moses and against Aaron in the company of Korah, when they contended against the LORD, 10and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up along with Korah, when that company died, when the fire devoured 250 men, so that they became a warning. 11The sons of Korah, however, did not die.

The census begins with Reuben, emphatically named “Israel’s firstborn”. The census comprises four generations (Gen 46:99The sons of Reuben: Hanoch and Pallu and Hezron and Carmi.). Among them Pallu is named particular because from his family Dathan and Abiram originated. These names recall the terrible revolt of Korah, Dathan and Abiram (Num 16:1-351Now Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, with Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On the son of Peleth, sons of Reuben, took [action],2and they rose up before Moses, together with some of the sons of Israel, two hundred and fifty leaders of the congregation, chosen in the assembly, men of renown.3They assembled together against Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “You have gone far enough, for all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is in their midst; so why do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?”4When Moses heard [this], he fell on his face;5and he spoke to Korah and all his company, saying, “Tomorrow morning the LORD will show who is His, and who is holy, and will bring [him] near to Himself; even the one whom He will choose, He will bring near to Himself.6Do this: take censers for yourselves, Korah and all your company,7and put fire in them, and lay incense upon them in the presence of the LORD tomorrow; and the man whom the LORD chooses [shall be] the one who is holy. You have gone far enough, you sons of Levi!”8Then Moses said to Korah, “Hear now, you sons of Levi,9is it not enough for you that the God of Israel has separated you from the [rest of] the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to Himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister to them;10and that He has brought you near, [Korah], and all your brothers, sons of Levi, with you? And are you seeking for the priesthood also?11Therefore you and all your company are gathered together against the LORD; but as for Aaron, who is he that you grumble against him?”12Then Moses sent a summons to Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab; but they said, “We will not come up.13Is it not enough that you have brought us up out of a land flowing with milk and honey to have us die in the wilderness, but you would also lord it over us?14Indeed, you have not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey, nor have you given us an inheritance of fields and vineyards. Would you put out the eyes of these men? We will not come up!”15Then Moses became very angry and said to the LORD, “Do not regard their offering! I have not taken a single donkey from them, nor have I done harm to any of them.”16Moses said to Korah, “You and all your company be present before the LORD tomorrow, both you and they along with Aaron.17Each of you take his firepan and put incense on it, and each of you bring his censer before the LORD, two hundred and fifty firepans; also you and Aaron [shall] each [bring] his firepan.”18So they each took his [own] censer and put fire on it, and laid incense on it; and they stood at the doorway of the tent of meeting, with Moses and Aaron.19Thus Korah assembled all the congregation against them at the doorway of the tent of meeting. And the glory of the LORD appeared to all the congregation.20Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,21“Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them instantly.”22But they fell on their faces and said, “O God, God of the spirits of all flesh, when one man sins, will You be angry with the entire congregation?”23Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,24“Speak to the congregation, saying, ‘Get back from around the dwellings of Korah, Dathan and Abiram.’”25Then Moses arose and went to Dathan and Abiram, with the elders of Israel following him,26and he spoke to the congregation, saying, “Depart now from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing that belongs to them, or you will be swept away in all their sin.”27So they got back from around the dwellings of Korah, Dathan and Abiram; and Dathan and Abiram came out [and] stood at the doorway of their tents, along with their wives and their sons and their little ones.28Moses said, “By this you shall know that the LORD has sent me to do all these deeds; for this is not my doing.29If these men die the death of all men or if they suffer the fate of all men, [then] the LORD has not sent me.30But if the LORD brings about an entirely new thing and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that is theirs, and they descend alive into Sheol, then you will understand that these men have spurned the LORD.”31As he finished speaking all these words, the ground that was under them split open;32and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, and their households, and all the men who belonged to Korah with [their] possessions.33So they and all that belonged to them went down alive to Sheol; and the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly.34All Israel who [were] around them fled at their outcry, for they said, “The earth may swallow us up!”35Fire also came forth from the LORD and consumed the two hundred and fifty men who were offering the incense.). We are once again told what the sin of the rebels was and the special judgment that struck them from God. It is stated that they “became a warning” (verse 1010and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up along with Korah, when that company died, when the fire devoured 250 men, so that they became a warning.). They are a sign that warns against any form of pride and rebellion.

But here we also read that the “sons of Korah, however, did not die” (verse 1111The sons of Korah, however, did not die.). The reason is not that they have shown a special faithfulness to the LORD. They belong to a doomy family. They were saved because God wanted to save them because they have not shown the spirit of their father. There is no other motive to discover than the grace of God. The sons of Korah have remained conscious of this grace also in next generations. We find its manifestations in several psalms (Psalms 42-49; 84; 85; 87; 88).


Simeon Counted

12The sons of Simeon according to their families: of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites; of Jamin, the family of the Jaminites; of Jachin, the family of the Jachinites; 13of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites; of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. 14These are the families of the Simeonites, 22,200.

Simeon is the tribe with the greatest loss. This large loss may also have been caused by the plague of the previous chapter, in which Simeon is also heavily to blame (Num 25:1414Now the name of the slain man of Israel who was slain with the Midianite woman, was Zimri the son of Salu, a leader of a father’s household among the Simeonites.). His count concerns five generations: “The sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin and Ohad and Jachin and Zohar and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman” (Gen 46:1010The sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin and Ohad and Jachin and Zohar and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman.).


Gad Counted

15The sons of Gad according to their families: of Zephon, the family of the Zephonites; of Haggi, the family of the Haggites; of Shuni, the family of the Shunites; 16of Ozni, the family of the Oznites; of Eri, the family of the Erites; 17of Arod, the family of the Arodites; of Areli, the family of the Arelites. 18These are the families of the sons of Gad according to those who were numbered of them, 40,500.

The census of Gad concerns seven generations: “The sons of Gad: Ziphion and Haggi, Shuni and Ezbon, Eri and Arodi and Areli” (Gen 46:1616The sons of Gad: Ziphion and Haggi, Shuni and Ezbon, Eri and Arodi and Areli.).


Judah Counted

19The sons of Judah [were] Er and Onan, but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. 20The sons of Judah according to their families were: of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites; of Perez, the family of the Perezites; of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites. 21The sons of Perez were: of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; of Hamul, the family of the Hamulites. 22These are the families of Judah according to those who were numbered of them, 76,500.

In Judah’s census, as in Reuben’s census, a dark event in the past is recalled: the death of Er and Onan (Gen 38:6-106Now Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, and her name [was] Tamar.7But Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the sight of the LORD, so the LORD took his life.8Then Judah said to Onan, “Go in to your brother’s wife, and perform your duty as a brother-in-law to her, and raise up offspring for your brother.”9Onan knew that the offspring would not be his; so when he went in to his brother’s wife, he wasted his seed on the ground in order not to give offspring to his brother.10But what he did was displeasing in the sight of the LORD; so He took his life also.). They died without descendants.

The census of Judah includes five generations: “The sons of Judah: Er and Onan and Shelah and Perez and Zerah (but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan)” (Gen 46:1212The sons of Judah: Er and Onan and Shelah and Perez and Zerah (but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan). And the sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.).


Issachar Counted

23The sons of Issachar according to their families: [of] Tola, the family of the Tolaites; of Puvah, the family of the Punites; 24of Jashub, the family of the Jashubites; of Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. 25These are the families of Issachar according to those who were numbered of them, 64,300.

The census of Issachar concerns four generations: “The sons of Issachar: Tola and Puvvah and Iob and Shimron” (Gen 46:1313The sons of Issachar: Tola and Puvvah and Iob and Shimron.).


Zebulun Counted

26The sons of Zebulun according to their families: of Sered, the family of the Seredites; of Elon, the family of the Elonites; of Jahleel, the family of the Jahleelites. 27These are the families of the Zebulunites according to those who were numbered of them, 60,500.

The census of Zebulun concerns three generations: “The sons of Zebulun: Sered and Elon and Jahleel” (Gen 46:1414The sons of Zebulun: Sered and Elon and Jahleel.).


Manasseh Counted

28The sons of Joseph according to their families: Manasseh and Ephraim. 29The sons of Manasseh: of Machir, the family of the Machirites; and Machir became the father of Gilead: of Gilead, the family of the Gileadites. 30These are the sons of Gilead: [of] Iezer, the family of the Iezerites; of Helek, the family of the Helekites; 31and [of] Asriel, the family of the Asrielites; and [of] Shechem, the family of the Shechemites; 32and [of] Shemida, the family of the Shemidaites; and [of] Hepher, the family of the Hepherites. 33Now Zelophehad the son of Hepher had no sons, but only daughters; and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah and Tirzah. 34These are the families of Manasseh; and those who were numbered of them were 52,700.

The census of Joseph’s tribe is done by the counting of his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. The census of Manasseh, Joseph’s firstborn son (Gen 41:5151Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh, “For,” [he said,] “God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s household.”), includes eight generations. Manasseh has increased in number. That has to do with the daughters of Zelophehad (Num 27:1-111Then the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph, came near; and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah and Hoglah and Milcah and Tirzah.2They stood before Moses and before Eleazar the priest and before the leaders and all the congregation, at the doorway of the tent of meeting, saying,3“Our father died in the wilderness, yet he was not among the company of those who gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah; but he died in his own sin, and he had no sons.4Why should the name of our father be withdrawn from among his family because he had no son? Give us a possession among our father’s brothers.”5So Moses brought their case before the LORD.6Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,7“The daughters of Zelophehad are right in [their] statements. You shall surely give them a hereditary possession among their father’s brothers, and you shall transfer the inheritance of their father to them.8Further, you shall speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘If a man dies and has no son, then you shall transfer his inheritance to his daughter.9If he has no daughter, then you shall give his inheritance to his brothers.10If he has no brothers, then you shall give his inheritance to his father’s brothers.11If his father has no brothers, then you shall give his inheritance to his nearest relative in his own family, and he shall possess it; and it shall be a statutory ordinance to the sons of Israel, just as the LORD commanded Moses.’”). They have a special interest in the inheritance. They are not among the numbered in Numbers 1. But here, in view of the land, they show their interest in the land. God appreciates this and counts it. In Numbers 27 we see what inspires them.


Ephraim Counted

35These are the sons of Ephraim according to their families: of Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthelahites; of Becher, the family of the Becherites; of Tahan, the family of the Tahanites. 36These are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran, the family of the Eranites. 37These are the families of the sons of Ephraim according to those who were numbered of them, 32,500. These are the sons of Joseph according to their families.

The census of Ephraim, Joseph’s second son (Gen 41:5252He named the second Ephraim, “For,” [he said,] “God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.”), includes four generations.


Benjamin Counted

38The sons of Benjamin according to their families: of Bela, the family of the Belaites; of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites; of Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites; 39of Shephupham, the family of the Shuphamites; of Hupham, the family of the Huphamites. 40The sons of Bela were Ard and Naaman: [of Ard], the family of the Ardites; of Naaman, the family of the Naamites. 41These are the sons of Benjamin according to their families; and those who were numbered of them were 45,600.

The census of Benjamin includes seven generations.


Dan Counted

42These are the sons of Dan according to their families: of Shuham, the family of the Shuhamites. These are the families of Dan according to their families. 43All the families of the Shuhamites, according to those who were numbered of them, were 64,400.

The census of Dan concerns one generation.


Asher Counted

44The sons of Asher according to their families: of Imnah, the family of the Imnites; of Ishvi, the family of the Ishvites; of Beriah, the family of the Beriites. 45Of the sons of Beriah: of Heber, the family of the Heberites; of Malchiel, the family of the Malchielites. 46The name of the daughter of Asher [was] Serah. 47These are the families of the sons of Asher according to those who were numbered of them, 53,400.

The census of Asher includes five generations. A daughter is also mentioned.


Naphtali Counted

48The sons of Naphtali according to their families: of Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeelites; of Guni, the family of the Gunites; 49of Jezer, the family of the Jezerites; of Shillem, the family of the Shillemites. 50These are the families of Naphtali according to their families; and those who were numbered of them were 45,400.

The census of Naphtali includes four generations.


All Counted Israelites

51These are those who were numbered of the sons of Israel, 601,730.

In the wilderness more than 600,000 members of God’s people have perished. But the people still have more than 600,000 members, although a little less over them – see the table at verses 1-41Then it came about after the plague, that the LORD spoke to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, saying,2“Take a census of all the congregation of the sons of Israel from twenty years old and upward, by their fathers’ households, whoever is able to go out to war in Israel.”3So Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho, saying,4“[Take a census of the people] from twenty years old and upward, as the LORD has commanded Moses.” Now the sons of Israel who came out of the land of Egypt [were]:. It is a great miracle of God and a proof of His grace, that despite all the plagues the people are hardly decreased in number.


The Size of the Inheritance

52Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 53“Among these the land shall be divided for an inheritance according to the number of names. 54To the larger [group] you shall increase their inheritance, and to the smaller [group] you shall diminish their inheritance; each shall be given their inheritance according to those who were numbered of them. 55But the land shall be divided by lot. They shall receive their inheritance according to the names of the tribes of their fathers. 56According to the selection by lot, their inheritance shall be divided between the larger and the smaller [groups].”

The size of the inheritance depends on the size of the family. Where because of unfaithfulness, as with Simeon, the family has become smaller, that also means a smaller inheritance, so less pleasure.

The family of God’s children is large. Yet the enjoyment of the inheritance is only experienced by those who are faithful in their lives with the Lord. The more there are, the more the inheritance is enjoyed.

Enjoying the inheritance is done in a tribal context. Each family stays within the borders that the LORD has determined for each tribe. One application may be that at the place where we meet as a local church, we enjoy the heavenly blessings together.

A practical application is that we should not go to another local church because we like it more there. Such behavior indicates that we are not content with the own “inheritance” given to us, the place where the Lord has placed us. It may also have to do with running away from certain responsibilities.


Levi Counted

57These are those who were numbered of the Levites according to their families: of Gershon, the family of the Gershonites; of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites; of Merari, the family of the Merarites. 58These are the families of Levi: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korahites. Kohath became the father of Amram. 59The name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt; and she bore to Amram: Aaron and Moses and their sister Miriam. 60To Aaron were born Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 61But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered strange fire before the LORD. 62Those who were numbered of them were 23,000, every male from a month old and upward, for they were not numbered among the sons of Israel since no inheritance was given to them among the sons of Israel.

The census of the privileged tribe of Levi also reminds us of the dark event in the beginning of their history as priests. The unfaithfulness of Nadab and Abihu is not concealed (verse 6161But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered strange fire before the LORD.; Lev 10:1-21Now Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took their respective firepans, and after putting fire in them, placed incense on it and offered strange fire before the LORD, which He had not commanded them.2And fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed them, and they died before the LORD.).


Reminder of the First Census

63These are those who were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numbered the sons of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho. 64But among these there was not a man of those who were numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest, who numbered the sons of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. 65For the LORD had said of them, “They shall surely die in the wilderness.” And not a man was left of them, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.

Here the census in the wilderness of Sinai is recalled. None of that first census could be included in this new census, except Joshua and Caleb. God has fulfilled His word of judgment, just as He fulfils His word of blessing. God always performs what He has said.


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