1 The Death of Miriam 2-6 New Rebellion of the People 7-13 Moses Strikes the Rock 14-21 Edom Refuses Israel to Pass Through 22-29 The Death of Aaron
The Death of Miriam

1Then the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people stayed at Kadesh. Now Miriam died there and was buried there.

The wilderness journey is nearing its end. The death of Aaron, at the end of this chapter, takes place in the fortieth year after the exodus from Egypt (Num 33:3838Then Aaron the priest went up to Mount Hor at the command of the LORD, and died there in the fortieth year after the sons of Israel had come from the land of Egypt, on the first [day] in the fifth month.). They arrive in Kadesh, at the border of Edom. Miriam dies in the first month of that, it is believed, the fortieth year. She also belongs to those who fall in the wilderness. This will also happen to Aaron and Moses. Through this excellent trio God has led His people out of Egypt (Mic 6:44“Indeed, I brought you up from the land of Egypt
And ransomed you from the house of slavery,
And I sent before you Moses, Aaron and Miriam.
), but none of them will enter the land with the people.

The death of Miriam, just before the end of the journey, gives the tone of the past forty years, about which hardly anything has been recorded. Scripture is silent about this. But it has been a death march. Every day men died, until the whole unbelieving generation is fallen in the wilderness. With the death of Miriam, the joy of redemption, a joy she expressed after the people had passed through the Red Sea (Exo 15:20-2120Miriam the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took the timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dancing.21Miriam answered them,
“Sing to the LORD,
For He is highly exalted;
The horse and his rider
He has hurled into the sea.”
), is silenced. That joy had to make way for the sadness of the ubiquitous death.

It seems that Miriam, together with her brother Aaron (Num 12:1-21Then Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married (for he had married a Cushite woman);2and they said, “Has the LORD indeed spoken only through Moses? Has He not spoken through us as well?” And the LORD heard it.), has completely disappeared from the scene after her attack on the authority of Moses. Perhaps she never got back the privileged position she had before her uprising. It may be a lesson that, even if someone is forgiven for a great sin, he or she will not regain the influence or position in the work of God that was there before that sin occurred.

New Rebellion of the People

2There was no water for the congregation, and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron. 3The people thus contended with Moses and spoke, saying, “If only we had perished when our brothers perished before the LORD! 4Why then have you brought the LORD’s assembly into this wilderness, for us and our beasts to die here? 5Why have you made us come up from Egypt, to bring us in to this wretched place? It is not a place of grain or figs or vines or pomegranates, nor is there water to drink.” 6Then Moses and Aaron came in from the presence of the assembly to the doorway of the tent of meeting and fell on their faces. Then the glory of the LORD appeared to them;

The people are rebelling again. Instead of feeling the loss of Miriam and being extra grateful for the leaders they still have, they turn against Moses and Aaron. The reason is the lack of water. The lack of water is a test by which God wants to test them. He wants to see if they have understood anything about being a high priest. In the previous chapters He has shown His appreciation of it. Now He wants to see their appreciation of it.

A people – or a person – who feels short, lacks gratitude and becomes unreasonable. The people wish again that they would have died, just like their brothers. They pretend that they died a natural death. They forget that their brothers were killed by the judgment over their sins. By their wrong view of what happened, they forget to be thankful that they themselves have been spared.

It is a people who live by the here and now and not by the promises of God. Their mind is expressed in the “why” questions by which they reveal their lack of trust in God (verses 4-54Why then have you brought the LORD’s assembly into this wilderness, for us and our beasts to die here?5Why have you made us come up from Egypt, to bring us in to this wretched place? It is not a place of grain or figs or vines or pomegranates, nor is there water to drink.”). They lack water, but not only that, they are also starting to complain about the lack of more food. Here and now a lot lacks. That is why they no longer want to continue to live. Their greatest shortcoming is faith in what God has promised them.

This people, who are now almost made up of people younger than twenty at the beginning of the journey or born in the wilderness, is no better than those who died in the wilderness. As so often, history repeats itself because the essence of man does not change.

The “why” questions are not answered because they stem from unbelief and rebellion. Moses and Aaron do not respond to the complaints of the people, but go to the only right place, to the dwelling place of the LORD. There they throw themselves down again, and there the glory of the LORD appears to them.

Moses Strikes the Rock

7and the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 8“Take the rod; and you and your brother Aaron assemble the congregation and speak to the rock before their eyes, that it may yield its water. You shall thus bring forth water for them out of the rock and let the congregation and their beasts drink.” 9So Moses took the rod from before the LORD, just as He had commanded him; 10and Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly before the rock. And he said to them, “Listen now, you rebels; shall we bring forth water for you out of this rock?” 11Then Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock twice with his rod; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation and their beasts drank. 12But the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Because you have not believed Me, to treat Me as holy in the sight of the sons of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.” 13Those [were] the waters of Meribah, because the sons of Israel contended with the LORD, and He proved Himself holy among them.

The rod that Moses must take is that of Aaron, the rod that has flourished. Moses takes it, for he lies before the LORD, and there he takes it away (verse 99So Moses took the rod from before the LORD, just as He had commanded him;). The rock also has a meaning: “And the rock was Christ” (1Cor 10:44and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ.). Moses once struck a rock (Exo 17:66Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink.” And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.). Then water came out. That stream of water has been following the people throughout their journey through the wilderness. Probably the stream has dried up because of the unbelief of the people. That is why they are now without water. However, they are not without a high priest.

The LORD gives Moses instructions. The LORD does not appear to discipline His people with a plague, as he did before (Num 16:4646Moses said to Aaron, “Take your censer and put in it fire from the altar, and lay incense [on it]; then bring it quickly to the congregation and make atonement for them, for wrath has gone forth from the LORD, the plague has begun!”). There is no judgment, no anger. From what He gives Moses will come a new proof of His grace and care for His ungrateful and contradictory people. Moses must now speak to the rock and not strike it.

The rock was once struck, by the rod of Moses, the rod that changed water into blood and cleft the Red Sea. It is a rod of judgement. Because Christ was struck by the striking hand of God, streams of water have emerged. That first strike happened at the beginning of the wilderness journey. Christ was struck once, He suffered once as “[the] just for [the] unjust, so that He might bring us to God” (1Pet 3:1818For Christ also died for sins once for all, [the] just for [the] unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;). Now He always lives to make intercession for us (Heb 7:2525Therefore He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.).

Any new appeal to be made to Him must not be made by striking the rock again, but by speaking to it. The source of blessing is at our disposal. We only need to speak to the High Priest, to approach Him in prayer, and He will give blessing and refreshment.

Weren’t Moses and Aaron prepared for this demonstration of grace from God for the sake of a people yet again rebellious? In any case they do not act in accordance with the grace the LORD wants to show here. They are reproached by the LORD for acting in unbelief (verse 1212But the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Because you have not believed Me, to treat Me as holy in the sight of the sons of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.”) and resisting His command (Num 27:1414for in the wilderness of Zin, during the strife of the congregation, you rebelled against My command to treat Me as holy before their eyes at the water.” (These are the waters of Meribah of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.)). Instead of speaking to the rock, they speak to the people. The attitude of the people has excited Moses, he loses his patience and speaks rash words (Psa 106:32-3332They also provoked [Him] to wrath at the waters of Meribah,
So that it went hard with Moses on their account;
33Because they were rebellious against His Spirit,
He spoke rashly with his lips.
). But the LORD has not said that they should say anything to the people. Yet Moses says to them: “Shall we …? He forgets that it concerns the LORD.

Moses strikes and God responds with … water, much water. This blessing is not proof that Moses acted correctly. God can still give much blessing to believers who gather in a place that is not in His mind. He can even give blessing by an unbelieving pastor. Blessing says nothing about the place or about the person, it says something about the goodness and sovereignty of God.

Moses strikes the rock with his rod (verse 1111Then Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock twice with his rod; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation and their beasts drank.), all against the LORD’s command. He strikes with the rod of judgment, while God wants to show Himself as the God of grace to His people. Many people speak to God’s people only about a judgmental God. He is, but not only that. God has judged. Therefore, He can be presented as a gracious God.

Moses and Aaron are given notice of the judgment. They have committed a “sin to death” (1Jn 5:16b16If anyone sees his brother committing a sin not [leading] to death, he shall ask and [God] will for him give life to those who commit sin not [leading] to death. There is a sin [leading] to death; I do not say that he should make request for this.) and will not enter the land. This punishment marks the seriousness of the sin, committed by the most responsible of the people. If we do not sanctify God, God sanctifies Himself.

The place where this happens is Meribah, which means ‘a place of struggle’. It is the same name that was used forty years earlier on a same occasion (Exo 17:77He named the place Massah and Meribah because of the quarrel of the sons of Israel, and because they tested the LORD, saying, “Is the LORD among us, or not?”). The events there speak, on the one hand, of the rebellion of the people (Psa 95:88Do not harden your hearts, as at Meribah,
As in the day of Massah in the wilderness,
) and, on the other, of the grace of God (Psa 114:88Who turned the rock into a pool of water,
The flint into a fountain of water.

Edom Refuses Israel to Pass Through

14From Kadesh Moses then sent messengers to the king of Edom: “Thus your brother Israel has said, ‘You know all the hardship that has befallen us; 15that our fathers went down to Egypt, and we stayed in Egypt a long time, and the Egyptians treated us and our fathers badly. 16But when we cried out to the LORD, He heard our voice and sent an angel and brought us out from Egypt; now behold, we are at Kadesh, a town on the edge of your territory. 17Please let us pass through your land. We will not pass through field or through vineyard; we will not even drink water from a well. We will go along the king’s highway, not turning to the right or left, until we pass through your territory.’” 18Edom, however, said to him, “You shall not pass through us, or I will come out with the sword against you.” 19Again, the sons of Israel said to him, “We will go up by the highway, and if I and my livestock do drink any of your water, then I will pay its price. Let me only pass through on my feet, nothing [else].” 20But he said, “You shall not pass through.” And Edom came out against him with a heavy force and with a strong hand. 21Thus Edom refused to allow Israel to pass through his territory; so Israel turned away from him.

Edom is not just a people, but a brotherhood. This determines Israel’s attitude in Edom’s refusing to allow the people to pass through their territory. They must not fight against them. They can and must do that against hostile peoples. The request of Moses reveals the ingrained hatred of Edom against the people of God.

The name Edom is related to Adam. In Adam we see what we are in our old nature. Edom represents our ‘brotherhood’, our flesh. The flesh is hostile to God “because the mind set on the flesh is hostile toward God” (Rom 8:7a7because the mind set on the flesh is hostile toward God; for it does not subject itself to the law of God, for it is not even able [to do so],). We are not called to fight against it, but to be guided by the Spirit. Then we will be kept from fighting against the flesh (Gal 5:16-1716But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh.17For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, so that you may not do the things that you please.). If we do fight against it, we will end up in the situation of Romans 7 and our lives will become a life of defeats. Consider ourselves to be dead to it (Rom 6:1111Even so consider yourselves to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.) does not mean ignoring or fighting against it, but go around it. That means recognizing hostility, while taking the right attitude to it.

God uses Edom’s refusal to deflect his people and bring them on the way to the Jordan. By taking the right attitude towards our flesh, that is to give the flesh the place God’s Word gives it, we come into the right position to take the blessings of the land.

This rejection of Edom is reminiscent of the rejection of “a village of the Samaritans” to receive the Lord Jesus. The Lord has also sent messengers there, as Moses does here to the king of Edom. By responding to the rejection as Israel does here, the people act in the spirit of the Lord Jesus (Lk 9:52-53,5652and He sent messengers on ahead of Him, and they went and entered a village of the Samaritans to make arrangements for Him.53But they did not receive Him, because He was traveling toward Jerusalem.).

The Death of Aaron

22Now when they set out from Kadesh, the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to Mount Hor. 23Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron at Mount Hor by the border of the land of Edom, saying, 24“Aaron will be gathered to his people; for he shall not enter the land which I have given to the sons of Israel, because you rebelled against My command at the waters of Meribah. 25Take Aaron and his son Eleazar and bring them up to Mount Hor; 26and strip Aaron of his garments and put them on his son Eleazar. So Aaron will be gathered [to his people], and will die there.” 27So Moses did just as the LORD had commanded, and they went up to Mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation. 28After Moses had stripped Aaron of his garments and put them on his son Eleazar, Aaron died there on the mountain top. Then Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain. 29When all the congregation saw that Aaron had died, all the house of Israel wept for Aaron thirty days.

The LORD commands Moses regarding the death of Aaron. He gives the reason for his death. He also takes care of a successor. Eleazar becomes high priest instead of his father Aaron. Eleazar brings the people into the land. Aaron is the high priest of a people travelling through the wilderness. This change indicates the different facets of the High Priesthood of the Lord Jesus.

Moses does as the LORD has commanded. His obedience to the LORD is unbroken, despite all the setbacks he has suffered in this chapter:
1. First the death of his sister Miriam,
2. then the uprising of the people,
3. then his own failure and the punishment for it,
4. the refusal and hostility of Edom which means a by-way and thus postponement of the goal to be achieved, and
5. finally the death of his brother Aaron, whom he sees dying with his own eyes.
Moses is a great example for us when we have to deal with setbacks. Let us also always remain open to the Lord’s Will.

Eleazar is the third son of Aaron. He is a type of the Lord Jesus as High Priest, but in connection with the land. The number three speaks of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, Who rose from the dead on the third day (Mt 16:2121From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day.; Lk 24:4646and He said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day,; 1Cor 15:3-43For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,4and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,; 1Pet 1:2121who through Him are believers in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.). Eleazar presents the Lord Jesus as High Priest who has been dead and now lives. By His death He opened the heaven and all the blessings that are there, to all who are connected with Him. That is what the promised land speaks of.

Before Aaron dies, he saw Eleazar being clothed with his garments (cf. Isa 22:20-2120“Then it will come about in that day,
That I will summon My servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah,
21And I will clothe him with your tunic
And tie your sash securely about him.
I will entrust him with your authority,
And he will become a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah.
). He might have been able to repeat what Simeon says in Luke 2 (Lk 2:29-3029“Now Lord, You are releasing Your bond-servant to depart in peace,
According to Your word;
30For my eyes have seen Your salvation,
). Eleazar derives everything from Aaron. He continues Aaron’s work in a new form. Aaron silently submits to what the LORD says. He dies, 123 years old, in dignity and peace, not as someone who is exterminated from the people. After that he is buried (Deu 10:66(Now the sons of Israel set out from Beeroth Bene-jaakan to Moserah. There Aaron died and there he was buried and Eleazar his son ministered as priest in his place.), we may accept by his brother and his son.

The people weep for him thirty days. They weep for the loss of him, against whom they have so often grumbled during his life. Similarly, there is often grief about the loss of blessings that we have not appreciated before. Godly people are often given more honor after death than during their lives.

Similarly, prophets have been persecuted and killed during their lives, but once they are killed, their graves are decorated as a kind of homage: “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous, and say, ‘If we had been [living] in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partners with them in [shedding] the blood of the prophets.’ So you testify against yourselves, that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets” (Mt 23:29-3129“Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous,30and say, ‘If we had been [living] in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partners with them in [shedding] the blood of the prophets.’31So you testify against yourselves, that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets.).

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