The “peace offering is the middle of the five offerings. The burnt offering and the grain offering are voluntary offerings and for God. The sin offering and the guilt offering that follow are obligatory offerings and are necessary for the sins of the people or of a member of the people. The peace offering is rightly central. It expresses the fellowship that exists between God and His people on the basis of the powerful workings of the offering. It proposes a fellowship meal.
From this offering God receives His share. The fat is called “food … to the LORD” (verses 11,1611Then the priest shall offer [it] up in smoke on the altar [as] food, an offering by fire to the LORD.16The priest shall offer them up in smoke on the altar [as] food, an offering by fire for a soothing aroma; all fat is the LORD’s.). From this offering the priest and the priestly family receive their share (Lev 7:3131The priest shall offer up the fat in smoke on the altar, but the breast shall belong to Aaron and his sons.). And from this offering, as the only offering in the Old Testament, all of the people may eat who are clean (Lev 7:1919‘Also the flesh that touches anything unclean shall not be eaten; it shall be burned with fire. As for [other] flesh, anyone who is clean may eat [such] flesh.). It is a feast with an offering through which reconciliation has been made and in which the ‘parties’ that have been reconciled, God and man, each have their share and also the priest – as a picture the Lord Jesus through Whom the reconciliation has been made (1Jn 1:3-43what we have seen and heard we proclaim to you also, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ.4These things we write, so that our joy may be made complete.).
What the peace offering means to us is explained in 1 Corinthians 10 (1Cor 10:16-2116Is not the cup of blessing which we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread which we break a sharing in the body of Christ?17Since there is one bread, we who are many are one body; for we all partake of the one bread.18Look at the nation Israel; are not those who eat the sacrifices sharers in the altar?19What do I mean then? That a thing sacrificed to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything?20[No], but [I say] that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God; and I do not want you to become sharers in demons.21You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons; you cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons.). For us it means the table of the Lord where the fellowship between God and the Lord Jesus and all His own is celebrated in the Lord’s Supper. The Lord’s Table is used in the Old Testament as an expression for the altar (Eze 44:1616“They shall enter My sanctuary; they shall come near to My table to minister to Me and keep My charge.; Mal 1:77[You] are presenting defiled food upon My altar. But you say, ‘How have we defiled You?’ In that you say, ‘The table of the LORD is to be despised.’).
The Lord’s Supper is a memorial meal. Each time the Lord’s Supper is celebrated, we remember what the Lord Jesus did on the cross. The Lord has also asked this: “Do this in remembrance of Me” (1Cor 11:23-2623For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread;24and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”25In the same way [He took] the cup also after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink [it], in remembrance of Me.”26For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes.). Remembering Him means telling God how great He is of Whom we too enjoy now, together with the Father. Then we will also have fellowship with each other. We symbolically express this in the breaking of the bread.
To express fellowship in eating together there must be something to eat. There must be spiritual awareness of what fellowship is. Paul therefore says: “I speak as to wise men; you judge what I say” (1Cor 10:1515I speak as to wise men; you judge what I say.). Children at the Lord’s Supper is therefore also impossible.
As with the previous offerings, here too we find first the larger and then the smaller offerings. We find no birds here like in Leviticus 1 (Lev 1:14-1714‘But if his offering to the LORD is a burnt offering of birds, then he shall bring his offering from the turtledoves or from young pigeons.15The priest shall bring it to the altar, and wring off its head and offer it up in smoke on the altar; and its blood is to be drained out on the side of the altar.16He shall also take away its crop with its feathers and cast it beside the altar eastward, to the place of the ashes.17Then he shall tear it by its wings, [but] shall not sever [it]. And the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar on the wood which is on the fire; it is a burnt offering, an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the LORD.).