In verses 12-3612“He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.13But if he did not lie in wait [for him], but God let [him] fall into his hand, then I will appoint you a place to which he may flee.14If, however, a man acts presumptuously toward his neighbor, so as to kill him craftily, you are to take him [even] from My altar, that he may die.15“He who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.16“He who kidnaps a man, whether he sells him or he is found in his possession, shall surely be put to death.17“He who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.18“If men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with [his] fist, and he does not die but remains in bed,19if he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, then he who struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his loss of time, and shall take care of him until he is completely healed.20“If a man strikes his male or female slave with a rod and he dies at his hand, he shall be punished.21If, however, he survives a day or two, no vengeance shall be taken; for he is his property.22“If men struggle with each other and strike a woman with child so that she gives birth prematurely, yet there is no injury, he shall surely be fined as the woman’s husband may demand of him, and he shall pay as the judges [decide].23But if there is [any further] injury, then you shall appoint [as a penalty] life for life,24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,25burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.26“If a man strikes the eye of his male or female slave, and destroys it, he shall let him go free on account of his eye.27And if he knocks out a tooth of his male or female slave, he shall let him go free on account of his tooth.28“If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall surely be stoned and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall go unpunished.29If, however, an ox was previously in the habit of goring and its owner has been warned, yet he does not confine it and it kills a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death.30If a ransom is demanded of him, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatever is demanded of him.31Whether it gores a son or a daughter, it shall be done to him according to the same rule.32If the ox gores a male or female slave, the owner shall give his [or her] master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.33“If a man opens a pit, or digs a pit and does not cover it over, and an ox or a donkey falls into it,34the owner of the pit shall make restitution; he shall give money to its owner, and the dead [animal] shall become his.35“If one man’s ox hurts another’s so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide its price equally; and also they shall divide the dead [ox].36Or [if] it is known that the ox was previously in the habit of goring, yet its owner has not confined it, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead [animal] shall become his. further regulations are given in case of violation of a certain commandment. We see how God takes into account different circumstances. He also takes into account whether and to what extent it is unintentional or deliberately.
In Matthew 5 the Lord Jesus also pays attention to the transgression of the commandments (Mt 5:17-4817“Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill.18For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished.19Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others [to do] the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches [them], he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.20“For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses [that] of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven.21“You have heard that the ancients were told, ‘YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT MURDER’ and ‘Whoever commits murder shall be liable to the court.’22But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be guilty before the court; and whoever says to his brother, ‘You good-for-nothing,’ shall be guilty before the supreme court; and whoever says, ‘You fool,’ shall be guilty [enough to go] into the fiery hell.23Therefore if you are presenting your offering at the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you,24leave your offering there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and present your offering.25Make friends quickly with your opponent at law while you are with him on the way, so that your opponent may not hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the officer, and you be thrown into prison.26Truly I say to you, you will not come out of there until you have paid up the last cent.27“You have heard that it was said, ‘YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY’;28but I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.29If your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.30If your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to go into hell.31“It was said, ‘WHOEVER SENDS HIS WIFE AWAY, LET HIM GIVE HER A CERTIFICATE OF DIVORCE’;32but I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except for [the] reason of unchastity, makes her commit adultery; and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.33“Again, you have heard that the ancients were told, ‘YOU SHALL NOT MAKE FALSE VOWS, BUT SHALL FULFILL YOUR VOWS TO THE LORD.’34But I say to you, make no oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God,35or by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet, or by Jerusalem, for it is THE CITY OF THE GREAT KING.36Nor shall you make an oath by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black.37But let your statement be, ‘Yes, yes’ [or] ‘No, no’; anything beyond these is of evil.38“You have heard that it was said, ‘AN EYE FOR AN EYE, AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH.’39But I say to you, do not resist an evil person; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also.40If anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, let him have your coat also.41Whoever forces you to go one mile, go with him two.42Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you.43“You have heard that it was said, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR and hate your enemy.’44But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you,45so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on [the] evil and [the] good, and sends rain on [the] righteous and [the] unrighteous.46For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same?47If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing [than others]? Do not even the Gentiles do the same?48Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.). He shows there that it is not only about deeds, but especially about the heart, the attitude that lies behind the deeds and the words. He has also revealed His own heart and has shown how much it goes beyond what the law requires. He has not only fulfilled the law, but also what goes beyond it. Nowhere does the law ask to give life for the other. He did. That is where love brings you.
First, further regulations are given in case of violation of the sixth commandment (verses 12-1412“He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.13But if he did not lie in wait [for him], but God let [him] fall into his hand, then I will appoint you a place to which he may flee.14If, however, a man acts presumptuously toward his neighbor, so as to kill him craftily, you are to take him [even] from My altar, that he may die.). The most radical form of violation of the law against his neighbor is to kill him, to take his life. As a general rule, in the case of manslaughter, one must act in accordance with what has been declared to Noah (Gen 9:66“Whoever sheds man’s blood,
By man his blood shall be shed,
For in the image of God
He made man.
). He who kills another, enters into the rights of God. Only God has the right over life and death. God has transferred this right to the government (Rom 13:1-71Every person is to be in subjection to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those which exist are established by God.2Therefore whoever resists authority has opposed the ordinance of God; and they who have opposed will receive condemnation upon themselves.3For rulers are not a cause of fear for good behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no fear of authority? Do what is good and you will have praise from the same;4for it is a minister of God to you for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath on the one who practices evil.5Therefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience’ sake.6For because of this you also pay taxes, for [rulers] are servants of God, devoting themselves to this very thing.7Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.).
If someone accidentally kills another person, he can flee to a city of refuge, for which arrangements will be made later (Num 35:1-351Now the LORD spoke to Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan [opposite] Jericho, saying,2“Command the sons of Israel that they give to the Levites from the inheritance of their possession cities to live in; and you shall give to the Levites pasture lands around the cities.3The cities shall be theirs to live in; and their pasture lands shall be for their cattle and for their herds and for all their beasts.4“The pasture lands of the cities which you shall give to the Levites [shall extend] from the wall of the city outward a thousand cubits around.5You shall also measure outside the city on the east side two thousand cubits, and on the south side two thousand cubits, and on the west side two thousand cubits, and on the north side two thousand cubits, with the city in the center. This shall become theirs as pasture lands for the cities.6The cities which you shall give to the Levites [shall be] the six cities of refuge, which you shall give for the manslayer to flee to; and in addition to them you shall give forty-two cities.7All the cities which you shall give to the Levites [shall be] forty-eight cities, together with their pasture lands.8As for the cities which you shall give from the possession of the sons of Israel, you shall take more from the larger and you shall take less from the smaller; each shall give some of his cities to the Levites in proportion to his possession which he inherits.”9Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,10“Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When you cross the Jordan into the land of Canaan,11then you shall select for yourselves cities to be your cities of refuge, that the manslayer who has killed any person unintentionally may flee there.12The cities shall be to you as a refuge from the avenger, so that the manslayer will not die until he stands before the congregation for trial.13The cities which you are to give shall be your six cities of refuge.14You shall give three cities across the Jordan and three cities in the land of Canaan; they are to be cities of refuge.15These six cities shall be for refuge for the sons of Israel, and for the alien and for the sojourner among them; that anyone who kills a person unintentionally may flee there.16‘But if he struck him down with an iron object, so that he died, he is a murderer; the murderer shall surely be put to death.17If he struck him down with a stone in the hand, by which he will die, and [as a result] he died, he is a murderer; the murderer shall surely be put to death.18Or if he struck him with a wooden object in the hand, by which he might die, and [as a result] he died, he is a murderer; the murderer shall surely be put to death.19The blood avenger himself shall put the murderer to death; he shall put him to death when he meets him.20If he pushed him of hatred, or threw something at him lying in wait and [as a result] he died,21or if he struck him down with his hand in enmity, and [as a result] he died, the one who struck him shall surely be put to death, he is a murderer; the blood avenger shall put the murderer to death when he meets him.22‘But if he pushed him suddenly without enmity, or threw something at him without lying in wait,23or with any deadly object of stone, and without seeing it dropped on him so that he died, while he was not his enemy nor seeking his injury,24then the congregation shall judge between the slayer and the blood avenger according to these ordinances.25The congregation shall deliver the manslayer from the hand of the blood avenger, and the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge to which he fled; and he shall live in it until the death of the high priest who was anointed with the holy oil.26But if the manslayer at any time goes beyond the border of his city of refuge to which he may flee,27and the blood avenger finds him outside the border of his city of refuge, and the blood avenger kills the manslayer, he will not be guilty of blood28because he should have remained in his city of refuge until the death of the high priest. But after the death of the high priest the manslayer shall return to the land of his possession.29‘These things shall be for a statutory ordinance to you throughout your generations in all your dwellings.30‘If anyone kills a person, the murderer shall be put to death at the evidence of witnesses, but no person shall be put to death on the testimony of one witness.31Moreover, you shall not take ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death.32You shall not take ransom for him who has fled to his city of refuge, that he may return to live in the land before the death of the priest.33So you shall not pollute the land in which you are; for blood pollutes the land and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed on it, except by the blood of him who shed it.34You shall not defile the land in which you live, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD am dwelling in the midst of the sons of Israel.’”; Deu 19:1-131“When the LORD your God cuts off the nations, whose land the LORD your God gives you, and you dispossess them and settle in their cities and in their houses,2you shall set aside three cities for yourself in the midst of your land, which the LORD your God gives you to possess.3You shall prepare the roads for yourself, and divide into three parts the territory of your land which the LORD your God will give you as a possession, so that any manslayer may flee there.4“Now this is the case of the manslayer who may flee there and live: when he kills his friend unintentionally, not hating him previously—5as when [a man] goes into the forest with his friend to cut wood, and his hand swings the axe to cut down the tree, and the iron [head] slips off the handle and strikes his friend so that he dies—he may flee to one of these cities and live;6otherwise the avenger of blood might pursue the manslayer in the heat of his anger, and overtake him, because the way is long, and take his life, though he was not deserving of death, since he had not hated him previously.7Therefore, I command you, saying, ‘You shall set aside three cities for yourself.’8“If the LORD your God enlarges your territory, just as He has sworn to your fathers, and gives you all the land which He promised to give your fathers—9if you carefully observe all this commandment which I command you today, to love the LORD your God, and to walk in His ways always—then you shall add three more cities for yourself, besides these three.10So innocent blood will not be shed in the midst of your land which the LORD your God gives you as an inheritance, and bloodguiltiness be on you.11“But if there is a man who hates his neighbor and lies in wait for him and rises up against him and strikes him so that he dies, and he flees to one of these cities,12then the elders of his city shall send and take him from there and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die.13You shall not pity him, but you shall purge the blood of the innocent from Israel, that it may go well with you.; Jos 20:1-91Then the LORD spoke to Joshua, saying,2“Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘Designate the cities of refuge, of which I spoke to you through Moses,3that the manslayer who kills any person unintentionally, without premeditation, may flee there, and they shall become your refuge from the avenger of blood.4He shall flee to one of these cities, and shall stand at the entrance of the gate of the city and state his case in the hearing of the elders of that city; and they shall take him into the city to them and give him a place, so that he may dwell among them.5Now if the avenger of blood pursues him, then they shall not deliver the manslayer into his hand, because he struck his neighbor without premeditation and did not hate him beforehand.6He shall dwell in that city until he stands before the congregation for judgment, until the death of the one who is high priest in those days. Then the manslayer shall return to his own city and to his own house, to the city from which he fled.’”7So they set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill country of Naphtali and Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the hill country of Judah.8Beyond the Jordan east of Jericho, they designated Bezer in the wilderness on the plain from the tribe of Reuben, and Ramoth in Gilead from the tribe of Gad, and Golan in Bashan from the tribe of Manasseh.9These were the appointed cities for all the sons of Israel and for the stranger who sojourns among them, that whoever kills any person unintentionally may flee there, and not die by the hand of the avenger of blood until he stands before the congregation.). He can also take refuge at the altar. God allowed it to happen at his hand. That does not mean that God worked it, but has allowed it. The fact that nothing happens outside His will does not mean that He is responsible for it. He does have an intention with what happens. In this case we can see that God wants to use this tragic event to bring the manslayer to His altar, a picture of the cross. But he who is not sincere in this, will still die (1Kgs 2:2929It was told King Solomon that Joab had fled to the tent of the LORD, and behold, he is beside the altar. Then Solomon sent Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, saying, “Go, fall upon him.”).