Deuteronomy
1-4 Divorce and a Certificate of Divorce 5 Dispensation for a Just Married Man 6 Grinding Instrument Is No Pledge 7 Kidnapping 8-9 Infection of Leprosy 10-13 Procedure in Case of Taking a Pledge 14-15 Treatment of a Hired Servant 16 Everyone Dies for His Own Sin 17-22 Alien, Orphan and Widow
Divorce and a Certificate of Divorce

1“When a man takes a wife and marries her, and it happens that she finds no favor in his eyes because he has found some indecency in her, and he writes her a certificate of divorce and puts [it] in her hand and sends her out from his house, 2and she leaves his house and goes and becomes another man’s [wife], 3and if the latter husband turns against her and writes her a certificate of divorce and puts [it] in her hand and sends her out of his house, or if the latter husband dies who took her to be his wife, 4[then] her former husband who sent her away is not allowed to take her again to be his wife, since she has been defiled; for that is an abomination before the LORD, and you shall not bring sin on the land which the LORD your God gives you as an inheritance.

It seems that this arrangement is being made because divorce is already regularly happening. Possibly it has even been practiced in Egypt. The purpose of this prescript seems to be to discourage a loose divorce. If someone has sent his wife out of his house and she is married again and is then send away again, then the first man is not allowed to take her back as his wife.

Although God, because of the hardness of their hearts, has allowed them to send their wives away, He considers the next marriage of the woman to be defiled. Therefore the Lord Jesus says that anyone who marries a woman who is send away by her husband commits adultery. This could not be so if God were to recognize divorce as a lawful thing. But for God there can be no legitimate reason for divorce.

There is no explicit consent to divorce anywhere. It is permitted, because of the hardness of heart (Mt 19:88He *said to them, “Because of your hardness of heart Moses permitted you to divorce your wives; but from the beginning it has not been this way.). God hates divorce (Mal 2:1616For I hate divorce,” says the LORD, the God of Israel, “and him who covers his garment with wrong,” says the LORD of hosts. “So take heed to your spirit, that you do not deal treacherously.”). This arrangement is also made to prevent a man from always acting according to will, at his discretion. He could change women as often as he likes. What a confusion that would cause in family life. Finally, there would also be no clarity about the inheritance.

The reason for sending away can be anything the man describes as “some indecency”. In any case, it has nothing to do with adultery, because therefore death penalty applies (Deu 22:20-2220“But if this charge is true, that the girl was not found a virgin,21then they shall bring out the girl to the doorway of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death because she has committed an act of folly in Israel by playing the harlot in her father’s house; thus you shall purge the evil from among you.22“If a man is found lying with a married woman, then both of them shall die, the man who lay with the woman, and the woman; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.). If he sends the wife away, he must give a certificate of divorce. She then has proof that her first husband renounces her and is no longer allowed to take her to wife.

God has given Israel a certificate of divorce: “And I saw that for all the adulteries of faithless Israel, I had sent her away and given her a writ of divorce” (Jer 3:8a8And I saw that for all the adulteries of faithless Israel, I had sent her away and given her a writ of divorce, yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear; but she went and was a harlot also.). How long did God not hesitate before He gave that letter? Finally, God had to write the certificate of divorce, because it is an apostate people who, as it is, will never return to blessing. For the people as a whole there is no recovery. What is being restored is a remnant of the election of grace (Rom 11:5,23-245In the same way then, there has also come to be at the present time a remnant according to [God’s] gracious choice.23And they also, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.24For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are the natural [branches] be grafted into their own olive tree?). Grace goes beyond the law. In this remnant God accepts His people again, while they as a whole have been whoring away from Him.

For the church as nominal Christianity, the moment of the certificate of divorce also comes. No restoration is possible for this Christianity either (Rev 18:2121Then a strong angel took up a stone like a great millstone and threw it into the sea, saying, “So will Babylon, the great city, be thrown down with violence, and will not be found any longer.; Rom 11:21-2221for if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you, either.22Behold then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God’s kindness, if you continue in His kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off.). However, in the present time there is still a Philadelphia (Rev 3:7-137“And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, and who shuts and no one opens, says this:8‘I know your deeds. Behold, I have put before you an open door which no one can shut, because you have a little power, and have kept My word, and have not denied My name.9Behold, I will cause [those] of the synagogue of Satan, who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie—I will make them come and bow down at your feet, and [make them] know that I have loved you.10Because you have kept the word of My perseverance, I also will keep you from the hour of testing, that [hour] which is about to come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth.11I am coming quickly; hold fast what you have, so that no one will take your crown.12He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and he will not go out from it anymore; and I will write on him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God, and My new name.13He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’). This is indicated in verse 55“When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out with the army nor be charged with any duty; he shall be free at home one year and shall give happiness to his wife whom he has taken..


Dispensation for a Just Married Man

5“When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out with the army nor be charged with any duty; he shall be free at home one year and shall give happiness to his wife whom he has taken.

Like the previous section, this verse also emphasizes the importance of marriage. It would be rather harsh to send a just married man into battle with the chance of his death. Then there is no chance of offspring and his name disappears from Israel. Therefore, he gets a year off to give happiness to his wife, which also means to experience sexual intercourse with her. It will also make the evil of the previous verses rather small.

This verse contrasts sharply with the previous verses. This is about a new wife taken by a man, whereas the previous verses refer to a send away wife. This man may stay at home for a whole year to give happiness to his wife. That’s how great the wife is for her husband. It is not a second wife, next to his first, but a new one.

For us, practice is not that we give happiness to our wife only for one year, but it is our privilege to do so throughout our life (1Cor 7:33,3933but one who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife,39A wife is bound as long as her husband lives; but if her husband is dead, she is free to be married to whom she wishes, only in the Lord.). The church is that wife to the Lord Jesus. The Lord is now free from battle and free from burdens and is committed to His church to give happiness to her. That is what He as Man in glory is doing now.


Grinding Instrument Is No Pledge

6“No one shall take a handmill or an upper millstone in pledge, for he would be taking a life in pledge.

The interests of the brother are dealt with in the section of Deuteronomy 24:6-25:16. When our brother’s interests conflict with our own, our brother’s interests take precedence: “Do not [merely] look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others. … For I have no one [else] of kindred spirit who will genuinely be concerned for your welfare. 21For they all seek after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus” (Phil 2:4,20-214do not [merely] look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others.20For I have no one [else] of kindred spirit who will genuinely be concerned for your welfare.21For they all seek after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus.).

God allows much, but He also gives limitations, to protect the other. Someone may take something in pledge from his brother. But when a brother asks to borrow something, it shows that he is in a weak position and therefore he is protected. God indicates here what may not be taken in pledge. It is not so much the value of what is taken in pledge, but the great significance in its use.

For example, if someone has to borrow grain, the instrument with which that grain has to be grinded may not be taken in pledge. He needs this instrument to process the grain so that it can be consumed as food and he can stay alive. This instrument is his life and whoever takes this instrument in pledge, takes the life of his brother in pledge.

This can be applied to the ministry of someone who brings the Word. The spiritual ministry that comes to the believers in the words of the servant means spiritual food for the believers. But what has been said still has to be worked out by the believer. It is not suitable for consumption. It must be judged, tested. It also needs to be worked out. The Word that comes to us has yet to be grinded, it has to undergo a process in our hearts and conscience to extract the food.

In this work, no brother or sister may be hindered by taking a millstone. No obstacle shall be created to the full enjoyment of the food. Anyone who brings the Word may not connect any of the hearers to himself and make him dependent on him for spiritual growth. Each one must work the food himself in fellowship with the Lord.


Kidnapping

7“If a man is caught kidnapping any of his countrymen of the sons of Israel, and he deals with him violently or sells him, then that thief shall die; so you shall purge the evil from among you.

The danger of dependence in the previous verse has become here kidnapping. Not only is someone here impoverished, but someone is completely owned by someone else, to make a profit with him. In Christianity this finds its horrible fulfillment in the roman catholic church. She assumes herself to be the bride of Christ, and that there is no salvation without her. She is called “the great harlot” and “BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS” (Rev 17:1,51Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke with me, saying, “Come here, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot who sits on many waters,5and on her forehead a name [was] written, a mystery, “BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.”). It says of her that she trades in “human lives” (Rev 18:12-1312cargoes of gold and silver and precious stones and pearls and fine linen and purple and silk and scarlet, and every [kind of] citron wood and every article of ivory and every article [made] from very costly wood and bronze and iron and marble,13and cinnamon and spice and incense and perfume and frankincense and wine and olive oil and fine flour and wheat and cattle and sheep, and [cargoes] of horses and chariots and slaves and human lives.).

For this world church, the spirits are made ripe by the advancing charismatic movement. People with charisma who manipulate the (often large) audience through their rousing language and impressive manifestations of powers, signs and miracles exercise an enormous power over their followers. In their words they honor God, but in practice they manipulate the feelings of the Christians who admire them. People who regard any criticism of ‘their’ preacher or miracle worker as a slander of the Spirit often turn out to be completely under the spell of that preacher or miracle worker. They have sold themselves to such a person.

Spiritual leaders are always in danger of connecting people to themselves. If they do that, they become party leaders. An example of this is Absalom of whom we read: “So Absalom stole away the hearts of the men of Israel” (2Sam 15:66In this manner Absalom dealt with all Israel who came to the king for judgment; so Absalom stole away the hearts of the men of Israel.). By flattering the men, he won them for his party and loosened them from David. A party leader is a sect leader. Of a sectarian man is written: “Reject a factious man after a first and second warning, knowing that such a man is perverted and is sinning, being self-condemned” (Tit 3:1010Reject a factious man after a first and second warning,).

How very different is the Lord Jesus. He is committed to the sheep and gives His life for them. The contrast with the thief who “comes only to steal and kill and destroy” is enormous. He is “the good Shepherd”, He “lays down His life for the sheep” (Jn 10:10-1110The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have [it] abundantly.11“I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep.).


Infection of Leprosy

8“Be careful against an infection of leprosy, that you diligently observe and do according to all that the Levitical priests teach you; as I have commanded them, so you shall be careful to do. 9Remember what the LORD your God did to Miriam on the way as you came out of Egypt.

Leprosy is a picture of sin with infectivity as its hallmark and death as the result. The precept on the plague of leprosy seems to focus on preventing the plague. The thought seems to be: Be careful against the plague of leprosy, beware that it does not strike you by rebellion against what the priests teach by the LORD’s command. It is about the Levitical priest’s teaching, not so much about the priest’s research of the plague. The importance of this teaching is emphasized by the fact that twice in this verse we read “be careful”.

Here in this book, by way of exception, something of the priest is mentioned again. A priest knows the holiness of God and teaches about it. Its purpose is that the flesh will not reveal itself. To add strength to this prescription Moses refers to what happened to Miriam.

Miriam is a concrete example (Num 12:2-102and they said, “Has the LORD indeed spoken only through Moses? Has He not spoken through us as well?” And the LORD heard it.3(Now the man Moses was very humble, more than any man who was on the face of the earth.)4Suddenly the LORD said to Moses and Aaron and to Miriam, “You three come out to the tent of meeting.” So the three of them came out.5Then the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud and stood at the doorway of the tent, and He called Aaron and Miriam. When they had both come forward,6He said,
“Hear now My words:
If there is a prophet among you,
I, the LORD, shall make Myself known to him in a vision.
I shall speak with him in a dream.
7“Not so, with My servant Moses,
He is faithful in all My household;
8With him I speak mouth to mouth,
Even openly, and not in dark sayings,
And he beholds the form of the LORD.
Why then were you not afraid
To speak against My servant, against Moses?”
9So the anger of the LORD burned against them and He departed.10But when the cloud had withdrawn from over the tent, behold, Miriam [was] leprous, as [white as] snow. As Aaron turned toward Miriam, behold, she [was] leprous.
). In her there has been an eruption of sin. It is not moral evil, but making a party. She contested Moses’ leadership out of jealousy. The result was that the people could not continue their journey for seven days (Num 12:1414But the LORD said to Moses, “If her father had but spit in her face, would she not bear her shame for seven days? Let her be shut up for seven days outside the camp, and afterward she may be received again.”).

This prescription to be careful against an infection of leprosy connects to the previous verse. That verse denounces the domination over others. The precept here points to the consequences of this: domination causes the infection of leprosy.


Procedure in Case of Taking a Pledge

10“When you make your neighbor a loan of any sort, you shall not enter his house to take his pledge. 11You shall remain outside, and the man to whom you make the loan shall bring the pledge out to you. 12If he is a poor man, you shall not sleep with his pledge. 13When the sun goes down you shall surely return the pledge to him, that he may sleep in his cloak and bless you; and it will be righteousness for you before the LORD your God.

As said, God allows His people to take a pledge as security for the repayment of the loan. But he who lends out, is not free to choose his pledge himself. In verse 66“No one shall take a handmill or an upper millstone in pledge, for he would be taking a life in pledge. there is something mentioned that may not be taken in pledge. Now we are told how this pledge can be taken. Giving in pledge is a matter for the borrower. The one who takes in pledge may not enter the private property of the one who gives in pledge for this purpose.

God also imposes restrictions on the duration of taking in pledge. If someone is entitled to the pledge of another person, he may not keep it unlimited, despite that the other person has not paid his debt. For example, a garment must be returned when the sun goes down if it belongs to a poor man. That gives blessing and will be to righteousness. Here someone renounces his own interest, in favor of the interest of the other. The prophet Amos is to blame the people for the transgression of this commandment (Amos 2:8a8“On garments taken as pledges they stretch out beside every altar,
And in the house of their God they drink the wine of those who have been fined.
).

This arrangement preserves the pledgor’s own responsibility and personal freedom. Sect leaders have no respect whatsoever for this. They push through decisions that they consider important for their cause, without listening to the voice of a single person. Personal conscience is not taken into account.


Treatment of a Hired Servant

14“You shall not oppress a hired servant [who is] poor and needy, whether [he is] one of your countrymen or one of your aliens who is in your land in your towns. 15You shall give him his wages on his day before the sun sets, for he is poor and sets his heart on it; so that he will not cry against you to the LORD and it become sin in you.

This is not a question of borrowing and debt, but of fairly earned wages. The worker must give each of his employees to what he is entitled, and must not postpone payment: “The wages of a hired man are not to remain with you all night until morning” (Lev 19:13b13‘You shall not oppress your neighbor, nor rob [him]. The wages of a hired man are not to remain with you all night until morning.; Mt 20:88“When evening came, the owner of the vineyard *said to his foreman, ‘Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last [group] to the first.’; Job 7:22“As a slave who pants for the shade,
And as a hired man who eagerly waits for his wages,
). If the wages are not paid in time, he will outcry to the LORD (Jam 5:44Behold, the pay of the laborers who mowed your fields, [and] which has been withheld by you, cries out [against you]; and the outcry of those who did the harvesting has reached the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth.). Anyone to whom a service is provided is obliged to pay the amount due in respect thereof. Employers should realize that they also have Someone above them: “Masters, grant to your slaves justice and fairness, knowing that you too have a Master in heaven” (Col 4:11Masters, grant to your slaves justice and fairness, knowing that you too have a Master in heaven.).

It also applies spiritually. Anyone who is “taught in the Word” is expected “to share all good things with the one who teaches [him]” (Gal 6:66The one who is taught the word is to share all good things with the one who teaches [him].). “For the laborer is worthy of his wages” (Lk 10:77Stay in that house, eating and drinking what they give you; for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Do not keep moving from house to house.). Where the spiritual is sown, it is only logical that the material things are reaped (1Cor 9:1111If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it too much if we reap material things from you?).

The obligation to pay must be fulfilled before sunset, as with the return of the cloak taken in pledge (verse 1212If he is a poor man, you shall not sleep with his pledge.). The previous regulation concludes with a blessing for the pledgor and justice from the LORD if it is met. The regulation for payment of wages concludes with a cry to the LORD and committing sin if it is not met.


Everyone Dies for His Own Sin

16“Fathers shall not be put to death for [their] sons, nor shall sons be put to death for [their] fathers; everyone shall be put to death for his own sin.

Each one receives the punishment for his own fault and not a descendant (2Kgs 14:66But the sons of the slayers he did not put to death, according to what is written in the book of the Law of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying, “The fathers shall not be put to death for the sons, nor the sons be put to death for the fathers; but each shall be put to death for his own sin.”; Eze 18:4,204Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die.20The person who sins will die. The son will not bear the punishment for the father’s iniquity, nor will the father bear the punishment for the son’s iniquity; the righteousness of the righteous will be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked will be upon himself.). There seems to be a contradiction with the statement that the sins of the fathers are visited on the third and fourth generations (Exo 20:55You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me,). The answer is that we must always distinguish the punishment of sin from the consequences of sin. David receives forgiveness, but he cannot escape the consequences of sin (2Sam 12:1-131Then the LORD sent Nathan to David. And he came to him and said,
“There were two men in one city, the one rich and the other poor.
2“The rich man had a great many flocks and herds.
3“But the poor man had nothing except one little ewe lamb
Which he bought and nourished;
And it grew up together with him and his children.
It would eat of his bread and drink of his cup and lie in his bosom,
And was like a daughter to him.
4“Now a traveler came to the rich man,
And he was unwilling to take from his own flock or his own herd,
To prepare for the wayfarer who had come to him;
Rather he took the poor man’s ewe lamb and prepared it for the man who had come to him.”
5Then David’s anger burned greatly against the man, and he said to Nathan, “As the LORD lives, surely the man who has done this deserves to die.6He must make restitution for the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing and had no compassion.”7Nathan then said to David, “You are the man! Thus says the LORD God of Israel, ‘It is I who anointed you king over Israel and it is I who delivered you from the hand of Saul.8I also gave you your master’s house and your master’s wives into your care, and I gave you the house of Israel and Judah; and if [that had been] too little, I would have added to you many more things like these!9Why have you despised the word of the LORD by doing evil in His sight? You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword, have taken his wife to be your wife, and have killed him with the sword of the sons of Ammon.10Now therefore, the sword shall never depart from your house, because you have despised Me and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.’11Thus says the LORD, ‘Behold, I will raise up evil against you from your own household; I will even take your wives before your eyes and give [them] to your companion, and he will lie with your wives in broad daylight.12Indeed you did it secretly, but I will do this thing before all Israel, and under the sun.’”13Then David said to Nathan, “I have sinned against the LORD.” And Nathan said to David, “The LORD also has taken away your sin; you shall not die.
). We all too often meet the consequences of the fathers’ sin in the lives of their descendants.


Alien, Orphan and Widow

17“You shall not pervert the justice due an alien [or] an orphan, nor take a widow’s garment in pledge. 18But you shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and that the LORD your God redeemed you from there; therefore I am commanding you to do this thing. 19“When you reap your harvest in your field and have forgotten a sheaf in the field, you shall not go back to get it; it shall be for the alien, for the orphan, and for the widow, in order that the LORD your God may bless you in all the work of your hands. 20When you beat your olive tree, you shall not go over the boughs again; it shall be for the alien, for the orphan, and for the widow. 21“When you gather the grapes of your vineyard, you shall not go over it again; it shall be for the alien, for the orphan, and for the widow. 22You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt; therefore I am commanding you to do this thing.

God upholds the right of the weak. We are referred back to what God has done for us. Then we see Someone Who has not thought of Himself, but only of our interests. He has freed us from the power of sin at the expense of Himself. That is the example of our attitude towards others. We see this in the parable that the Lord Jesus tells of the debtor with a large debt that is forgiven to him. This man forgets that so much is forgiven him. This is evident from the fact that he constrains another who owes him a much smaller debt, without mercy, to repay it (Mt 18:21-3521Then Peter came and said to Him, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me and I forgive him? Up to seven times?”22Jesus *said to him, “I do not say to you, up to seven times, but up to seventy times seven.23“For this reason the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who wished to settle accounts with his slaves.24When he had begun to settle [them], one who owed him ten thousand talents was brought to him.25But since he did not have [the means] to repay, his lord commanded him to be sold, along with his wife and children and all that he had, and repayment to be made.26So the slave fell [to the ground] and prostrated himself before him, saying, ‘Have patience with me and I will repay you everything.’27And the lord of that slave felt compassion and released him and forgave him the debt.28But that slave went out and found one of his fellow slaves who owed him a hundred denarii; and he seized him and [began] to choke [him], saying, ‘Pay back what you owe.’29So his fellow slave fell [to the ground] and [began] to plead with him, saying, ‘Have patience with me and I will repay you.’30But he was unwilling and went and threw him in prison until he should pay back what was owed.31So when his fellow slaves saw what had happened, they were deeply grieved and came and reported to their lord all that had happened.32Then summoning him, his lord *said to him, ‘You wicked slave, I forgave you all that debt because you pleaded with me.33Should you not also have had mercy on your fellow slave, in the same way that I had mercy on you?’34And his lord, moved with anger, handed him over to the torturers until he should repay all that was owed him.35My heavenly Father will also do the same to you, if each of you does not forgive his brother from your heart.”).

This is about maintaining the rights of the other. In the church of God, it is different than in the world. In the world my own norm is standard in upholding human rights: ‘I have right, the other is obliged.’ The own rights are defended. In the church of God, my brother has only rights and I only duties. We cannot assert any rights. It is about what God says to me. Of course He says that to the other as well, but that is not my concern here. The memory of one’s own oppression and the liberation from it help to stand up for others who are in oppression.

What has remained on the land or on the olive tree and in the vineyard may not be collected later by the owner (see also Lev 19:9-109‘Now when you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap to the very corners of your field, nor shall you gather the gleanings of your harvest.10Nor shall you glean your vineyard, nor shall you gather the fallen fruit of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the needy and for the stranger. I am the LORD your God.; 23:2222‘When you reap the harvest of your land, moreover, you shall not reap to the very corners of your field nor gather the gleaning of your harvest; you are to leave them for the needy and the alien. I am the LORD your God.’”). God determines that the reaping of what is left of it is for those who have no other support than Him.

What has not been collected has been forgotten by the mowers. They have overlooked it. It is, so to speak, a fruit that sometimes is not obvious. Those to whom God has bestowed this fruit of the land must make an effort to find it, collect it, and enjoy it. It is not thrown into their laps or delivered to their homes. Ruth has to be active to appropriate these blessings (cf. Rth 2:2,72And Ruth the Moabitess said to Naomi, “Please let me go to the field and glean among the ears of grain after one in whose sight I may find favor.” And she said to her, “Go, my daughter.”7And she said, ‘Please let me glean and gather after the reapers among the sheaves.’ Thus she came and has remained from the morning until now; she has been sitting in the house for a little while.”).

Just as the exhortation of verse 1717“You shall not pervert the justice due an alien [or] an orphan, nor take a widow’s garment in pledge. is followed by a reminder of the liberation from Egypt, so is the case with the reaping of what is left of the harvest. It is to be expected from those who have been shown mercy that they themselves will show mercy to others. The memory of proven goodness urges us to show goodness to others.


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